The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed on "those who conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields ofPhysics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace and Economics. Instituted by Alfred Nobel's last will, which specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes, now known as the Nobel Prizes. They are widely recognized as one of the most prestigious honors awarded in the aforementioned fields.

A total of 835 individuals (791 men and 44 women) and 21 organizations were awarded the Nobel Prize, some more than once. Among the total recipients, 12 are Indians (5 Indian citizens and 7 of Indian origin or residency). Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian citizen to be awarded and Mother Teresa is the only woman in the list. Notably, Sri Aurobindo was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1943 and for the Nobel Prize in Peace in 1950.

On 1 December 1999, the Norwegian Nobel Committee confirmed that Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was nominated for the Peace Prize thrice (in 1937–39, 1947 and a few days before he was assassinated in January 1948). In 2006, Geir Lundestad, Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee said, "The greatest omission in our 106 year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace prize. Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize. Whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question".

Indian citizens

The following are the Nobel laureates who were Indian citizens at the time they were awarded the Nobel Prize.

year

Laureate

Subject

Rationale

1913

Rabindranath Tagore

Literature

Awarded "because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West."

1930

C. V. Raman

Physics

"For his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him."

1979

Mother Teresa
(born in Skopje,Ottoman Empire)

Peace

"For work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace."

1998

Amartya Sen

Economic studies

"For his contributions to welfare economics."

2014

Kailash Satyarthi

Peace

Awarded jointly to Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai – "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education."


Overseas citizens of Indian origin

The following are Nobel laureates born in India or who are of Indian origin but subsequently non-citizens of India; however, they are still often included in lists of Indian Nobel laureates.

Year

Laureate

Country

Subject

Rationale

1968

Har Gobind Khorana
(born in Raipur, British India)

United States

Physiology or Medicine

Awarded along with Robert W. Holley and Marshall W. Nirenberg – "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis."

1983

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
(born in Lahore, British India)

United States

Physics

"For his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars."

2009

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
(born in Chidambaram,India)

United Kingdom / United States

Chemistry

"For studies of the structure and function of the ribosome."


Other

The following are Nobel laureates with Indian linkages – those who were born in British India or those who were residents in India when they became recipients of the Nobel Prize.

Year

Laureate

Country

Subject

Rationale

1902

Ronald Ross
(born in Almora, British India)

United Kingdom

Physiology or Medicine

"For his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it."

1907

Rudyard Kipling
(born in Bombay, British India)

United Kingdom

Literature

"In consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author."

1989

14th Dalai Lama
(born in Taktser,Republic of China)

Tibet
(exiled)

Peace

"In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [he] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people."

2001

V. S. Naipaul
(born in Chaguanas,Trinidad and Tobago)

United Kingdom

Literature

"For having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories."


source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia