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There are several autonomous administrative divisions of India to which the central government has given varying degrees of autonomy within the state legislature. The establishment and functions of most of these autonomous councils are based on the sixth schedule to the Constitution of India.
- 1.1Bodoland Territorial Council
- 1.2Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council
- 1.3Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council
- 1.4Mising Autonomous Council(MAC)
- 1.5Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council (RHAC)
- 1.6Tiwa Autonomous Council (TAG)
- 1.7Deori Autonomous Council (DAC)
- 1.8Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council (TKAC)
- 1.9Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council (SKAC)
- 2In Manipur
- 2.1Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council
- 3In Jammu and Kashmir
- 3.1Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil
- 3.2Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh
- 4In Meghalaya
- 4.1Garo Hills Autonomous District Council
- 4.2Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council
- 4.3Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council
- 5In Mizoram
- 5.1Chakma Autonomous District Council
- 5.2Lai Autonomous District Council
- 5.3Mara Autonomous District Council
- 6In Tripura
- 6.1Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
- 7In West Bengal
- 7.1Gorkhaland Territorial Administration
- 8De facto autonomous areas
- 8.1North Sentinel Island
Bodoland Territorial Council
The Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) has legislative, administrative, executive and financial powers over 40 policy areas in the Bodoland Territorial Areas Districts comprising four 4(four) Administrative Districts as- Udalguri, Baksa. Chirang, Kokrajhar and 40 (Forty) Elected Representatives to the BTC Legislative Assembly and provisions for 6 (six) Nominated Members to be nominated by the Governor of Assam from the unrepresented communities in the BTCLA through direct Elections. districts of Assam. It was established in 2003 following a peace agreement between the Government of India and Bodo rebels and is functioning since 2003 under the provision of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India.The first Chief Executive Member of the BTC is Hagrama Mohilary.Earlier Bodoland Autnomous Council was functional with lesser power.
Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council
The Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC) is an autonomous council in the district constituted under the provision of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India.
Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council
The Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council is an autonomous council constituted under the provisions of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India to administer the district and to develop the Dimasa people
Mising Autonomous Council(MAC)
The Mising Autonomous Council was constituted by the Government of Assam in 2005. It was constituted for all round development in the area of economic, educational, socio-cultural and ethnic identity of Mising people residing in the council area.
Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council (RHAC)
An Autonomous Council have been constituted under the style - Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council with its headquarters at Dudhnai town. The jurisdiction of this council extends up to Rani area of Kamrup district and except some parts of Matia, Balijana and Lakhipur revenue Circles, it embraces almost the entire district of Goalpara. The autonomous council has been created to fulfill the longstanding demands of the Rabha people of the area. However, as the council is constituted only for the Ravas, the Tribals like the Bodos, the Garos, the Kochs, the Rajbongsis and others who constitute more than half of the population of Hasong area have been left out from the benefit of the council. As a result of this, there is a growing demand for Autonomous district council comprising all Tribal groups of these areas.
Tiwa Autonomous Council (TAC), Tiwashong
Headquarters: Morigaon (Tiwashong), Assam.
The Tiwa Autonomous Council (TAC), Tiwashong was constituted by the Government of Assam on 14 April 1995, The Apex council will consist of 144 villages of Nagaon, Morigaon and Kamrup with 28 blocks.
The Tiwa Autonomous Council (TAC) will consist of 30 elected members out of which 4 will be nominated by the Government to give representation to the people of other community. Out of these 30 seats, 15 will be reserved for the Tiwa Community and 3 seats will b reserved for women.
Deori Autonomous Council (DAC)
The council area is scattered in medium/small villages/parts of villages/settlements in seven upper Assam Districts namely Dhemaji, Lakhimpur, Sonitpur, Jorhat, Sibsagar, Dibrugarh and Tinsukia where the Deori community is situated.
Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council (TKAC)
Established on 10 August 2005 under Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council Act, 2005 of government of Assam for the overall development of the Thengal Kachari community. The office of the Council is at Titabar, Jorhat, Assam. For details visit: Official website
Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council (SKAC)
The Sonowal Kachari Accord was signed on 4 March 2005 between the Government and four signatory organizations of the community – All Assam Sonowal Kachari Students’ Union, All Sonowal Kachari Jatiya Parishad, Sonowal Kachari Yuva Parishad and Sonowal Kachari Autonomy Demand Committee. Subsequently, the Gazette Notification was made, under Assam Act XX of 2005, on 11 May 2005, as ‘Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council Act, 2005’ providing for the establishment of an administrative authority in the name and style of "SONOWAL KACHARI AUTONOMOUS COUNCIL". Oath taking by its thirty Members was concluded on 25 September 2005.
Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council
Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council (SHADC) covers Saikul Subdivision, Saitu Subdivision and Sadar Hills West Subdivision in Senapati District of Manipur. It is one of the six autonomous district councils in Manipur state.
Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil
Kargil is a district of Ladakh, Kashmir, India. Kargil lies near the Line of Control facing Pakistan-administered Kashmir's Baltistan to the west, and Kashmir valley to the south. Following demands of Ladakhi people to make the district a new Indian union territory because of its religious and cultural differences with Kashmir. The government of India formed the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), which governs the area with limited autonomy.
Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh
Leh is one of the two districts of Ladakh. Following widespread agitations to make it a Union Territory of India due to the cultural and liguistic differences with Kashmir the government of India formed the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), which governs this area with limited political autonomy. The first elections for the LAHDCwere held in the year 1995.
Garo Hills Autonomous District Council
Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council
The Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council (JHADC) is seated at Jowai and covers the Jaintia Hills district.
Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council
Chakma Autonomous District Council
Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) is an autonomous council for the Chakma people living in the south-western part of Mizoram.
Lai Autonomous District Council
Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) is an autonomous council for the Lai people in the South-eastern part of Mizoram.
Mara Autonomous District Council
Mara Autonomous District Council (MADC) is an autonomous council for the Mara people living in the Southern part of Mizoram.
Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC) is an independent council administering the tribal areas of the state of Tripura. Its council and assembly are situated in Khumulwng, a town 20 km outside Agartala, the state capital.
In West Bengal
Gorkhaland Territorial Administration
Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) is a semi-autonomous administrative body for the Darjeeling hills in West Bengal, India. The GTA replaced the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council, which was formed in 1988 and administered the Darjeeling hills for 23 years. GTA presently has three hill subdivisions Darjeeling, Kalimpong, and Kurseong and some areas of Siliguri subdivision under its authority.
De facto autonomous areas
North Sentinel Island
North Sentinel Island is situated in the island chain of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which is a union territory of India. It is home to the Sentinelese, who are some of the world's last uncontacted peoples. They reject any contact with other people and are among the last people to remain virtually untouched by modern civilization. There has never been any treaty with the people of the island nor any record of a physical occupation.
The local government (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) has recently stated that they have no intention to interfere with the Sentinelese's lifestyle or habitat. Although the island is likely to have suffered seriously from the effects of the December 2004 tsunami, the survival of the Sentinelese was confirmed when, some days after the event, an Indian government helicopter observed several of them, who shot arrows at the hovering aircraft to repel it.
Although this has not been done with any formal treaty, the official policy of minimal interference has ensured that they have de facto autonomy and sovereignty over their island under the framework of the Indian and local governments.