The Districts shares its boundaries with Lunglei and Saiha District in the north and south respectively. Lawngtlai District covers an area of 2258 sq.kms with the population of 73,685 ( 2001 Census). The inhabitants of the District are mainly the ethnic groups of tribals like Lai and Chakma, who are among the minor tribal communities of Mizoram. The main occupation is cultivation and the rural population largely depends on agriculture for their subsistence. The physical feature is mainly hilly except with long narrow strip of low lying area along the western side of Chamdur Valley .
Lawngtlai District has various types of uniqueness and peculiarity. There are two Autonomous District Councils within the District. The two-in-one District comprises the Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) and the Chakma Autonomous District Council(CADC) with their headquarters at Lawngtlai and Kamalanagar respectively. Having separate Autonomous Legislature, Excecutive and Judiciary, the Lais and the Chakmas administered their respective Autonomous regions in accordance with the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India.
Geographical and Demographical.
Lawngtlai District is one of the administrative Districts in Mizoram. The District was created on the 11th November, 1998 (Vide: Government of Mizoram notification No. A. 60011/21/95-GAD. Dated Aizawl, the 11th November, 1998) . It is located in the southern most part of Mizoram having international boundaries with Bangladesh in the west and Myanmar in the east. The district is bounded by Lunglei and Saiha District in the north and in the south respectively. Lawngtlai District covered an area of 2258 Sq.km with population of 69803. The physical feature is mainly hilly except some small strip of low lying area a long the western side of Chamdur Valley . The hills are of a mountainous system with a soft earth surface. Landslide disaster is a common seen especially during rainy season throughout the area. The western side of the district is covered by thick virgin forest. The main rivers are Chhimtuipui river, Ngengpui River , Chawngte River and Tuiphal River . The average annual rainfall is about 285 cm.
In comparing with other districts in Mizoram, Lawngtlai district has various types of uniqueness and peculiarity. There are two Autonomous District Councils within the district. The two-in-one district comprises the Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) and the Chakma District Council (CADC) with their Headquarters at Lawngtlai and Kamalanagar respectively. Having separate autonomous Legislature, the Lais and the Chakmas are administered their respective autonomous regions. Whereas civil administration including al kinds of criminal cases come under Jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner (DC) all cases tribal under customary laws are vested within the Jurisdiction of the Autonomous District Councils.
Lawngtlai is the Headquarters of the District. It comprises three administrative Sub-Divisions and four Rural Development Blocks.
The Civil Sub-Divisions are :
(a) Lawngtlai Civil Sub-Division
(b) Chawngte Civil Sub-Division
(c) Sangau Civil Sub-Division
The four Rural Development Blocks are:
(b) Bungtlang S RD Block
(c) Sangau RD Block
(d) Chawngte RD Block
Lawngtlai District has moderate climate. Relative humidity is highest during the south-west monsoon when they are about 85%. Heavy rainfall is usually received during the month from May up to September every year. The temperature ranges from 15degree to 25 degree during winter. The average annual rainfall is about 285cm. The hottest period starts from the month of March up to August every year. During the rainy season there is heavy clouded. There is an increase of cloudiness from March onwards. A clear and cool weather starts appearing from the month of September up to January the next year
The main communities occupying Lawngtlai District are the Lais, Chakmas, Bawm, Pang, etc. there are famous cultural heritage among such tribes. In the eastern side of the district where Lai community are the main inhabitants. Chawnglaizawnh, Sarlamkai, Pawhlohtlawh are the main cultural dances. In Chakma occupied area of the district, there are various tribes of backward classes. In this area, the main religion is Buddhism whereas in the eastern side ie Lai occupied area, Christianity is prevailing as their major religion. The common languages speaks in the district are Lai, Chakma and various dialect of other backward tribes ie Pang, Bru, Bawm etc. These communities have different fold dance, folk dance, folk tales of their own. The common cultural dances of the Chakmas are Nua Jhumo Naach and Biju Naach.
The inhabitants of Lawngtlai District are very backward in various ways, the standard of living is very low and literacy percentage of the district is also the lowest amongst the eight districts in Mizoram.
FLORA AND FAUNA
Lawngtlai district is situated within the tropical belt. It usually received high annual rainfall during the month from May upto September. In this region the tropical wet evergreen, mixed deciduous forest and wild banana forests are found. The western part of the region is covered by a thick virgin forest. Host of skima wallichi, Banyan tree, Gulmohar tree, Gamari, Jarus, Champa and several kinds of bamboos, climbers of different kinds and many kinds of wild fruits are found in this area. Several kinds of plants and herbs which are good for making herbal medicines are also found in
In Lawngtlai District one third of the total population are depends on Agriculture.
The main method of agriculture is jhuming/shifting cultivation, thus most of the people are cultivator. The seeding is done during March and harvesting period strats by the end of October and usually ended in November. Especially people, living in the district headquarters (Lawngtlai) are also engaged in various services in Government, business particularly in Autonomous District councils. The economic status of district is the lowest in compared with other districts in Mizoram. Attempts had been made by the Autonomous District Councils (LADC/CADC) to uplift the method of agriculture and replacement of shifting cultivation by wet rice cultivation (WRC) in the western area of the district called ‘Chamdur Valley Project’. Further in the western belt of the area, there are vast fertile plains which are highly potential for agricultural purposes in the valleys of the two rivers. Thega and Tuichawng and proper harvestmen of the plains will make the district self sufficient in food grains.